Author: Vitelio Brustolin. The defense industry is part of a country’s industrial base and often has multiple uses, serving both civilian and military purposes. It does not stand alone and is a significant part of the country’s industry. From this perspective, this article demonstrates the Brazilian military’s influence on industrialization policies. Such influence has not always been vested with legitimacy, as in the 1964 coup d’état and the subsequent military government (1964-1985), nor has it always been due to internal reasons. Political-military events, such as World War I and especially World War II, have directly affected the country’s industrialization policies. The methodology employed in this article is a review of policies, institutions, laws, and historical facts. The conclusions highlight that during the 20th century Brazil went from the stage of not producing defense equipment to the status of one of the largest exporters in the world. This role underwent profound changes in the 1990s, and 2000s. However, there are threats that a new dictatorship could be established in Brazil. If the country suffers another democratic-era coup d’état, what happened in the 1990s could repeat itself. That is, deindustrialization and the subsequent dismantling of what remains of the defense industry, which would also affect the civilian industry. Keywords: Brazilian industry; Brazilian defense industrial base; military influence in Brazil; defense industry; civil-military relations. ISSN: 2245-4373. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25160/bjbs.v10i2.128359 | Publication Name: Brasiliana: Journal for Brazilian Studies, Vol.10, No. 2, 2021, p. 70-95.
Authors: Vitelio Brustolin, Dennison de Oliveira, Alcides Peron. In this article, we explore how the United States developed an intelligence strategy that, since the Cold War, has been based on relationships with private high-tech companies. Specifically, we analyse documents that demonstrate that the Swiss company Crypto AG – a supplier of cryptographic equipment to more than 120 countries – was controlled by the CIA. We analyse the implications of this for Brazil, in a comparative perspective with the experience of these other nations. Our methodology includes: (1) analysis of documents recently declassified by the US and Brazil; (2) analysis of budget expenditure data; (3) information made available by Crypto AG on its international operations. In our conclusion, we highlight the irrefutability of the relationship established between the CIA and Crypto AG, which lasted from the 1950s to 2018. Finally, we present documents that show that Brazil continued to buy cryptographic equipment from Crypto AG for its Armed Forces until 2019. Keywords: Cryptography; Espionage; Intelligence; Crypto AG; Brazil; United States. ISSN: 0955-7571 (print) 1474-449X (web). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2020.1842328 | Publication Name: Cambridge Review of International Affairs.
In this article we compare the main regulations employed by the United States and Brazil for their respective cybersecurity and cyber defence. From this comparison we produced four main conclusions. First, the absence of an effective public policy for cybersecurity and cyber defence in the United States left the country vulnerable to Russian cyber-attacks that influenced the course of the 2016 Presidential Election. Second, the Cybersecurity Act of 2012, which was supported by Barack Obama, who was President at the time, would have increased US protection against cyber-attacks. However, the bill did not become law because it was defeated in the US Senate. Third, if Brazil had enacted legislation similar to the Cybersecurity Act of 2012, the country would have prevented most of the fake news and cyber-attacks that occurred in its own 2018 Presidential Election. Fourth, the main initiatives of the Cybersecurity Act of 2012 can still be implemented by both the United States and Brazil. To reach these conclusions, we compared intended purpose of the Cybersecurity Act of 2012, with facts that highlight the consequent failures in cybersecurity and cyber defence in the United States and Brazil. Keywords: cybersecurity; cyber defence; cyber-attacks; Cybersecurity Act of 2012; Internet regulation; cyber safety in the United States; cyber safety in Brazil. ISSN: 1809-3191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26792/RBED.v6n2.2019.75149 | Publication Name: RBED, v. 25, n. 3, p. 643-673.
The definition of terrorism and its differentiation from war and guerrilla warfare has been a problem for science, international relations and legal systems for decades. This article posits that defining terrorism requires also the definition of other warlike phenomena, so as not to conflate the acts or events. Therefore, the proposed criteria for defining terrorism and guerrilla warfare are presented as a means to differentiate their definitions from that of war. The methodology is a review of the concepts of the nature and essence of war, as described in the Carl von Clausewitz book, Vom Kriege (in the standard German edition of Hahlweg and its widely accepted English translation by Howard and Paret). These concepts were cross-analyzed with recent scientific discoveries about the behavior of social animals, with a focus on humans. The resulting classification allows historical or contemporary events to be evaluated to determine what kind of conflicts they are. Keywords: Definition of terrorism. Definition of guerrilla warfare. Definition of war. Carl von Clausewitz. International law. ISSN: 1809-3191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21544/1809-3191.v25n3.p643-673 | Publication Name: Journal of the Naval War College, v. 25, n. 3, p. 643-673.
Authors: Vitelio Brustolin, Luiz Pedone, Cesar Martins. Jurgen Brauer and Paul Dunne detect in Military Malthusianism a vulnerability in the occurrence of offsets. This vulnerability is perceived from the fact that the unit cost of large arms systems increases faster than government budget revenues. One of the consequences of this fact is the governments’ search for greater economic efficiency through the globalization of the production and acquisition of arms. If on one hand this theory affirms that we will see more and more unconventional conflicts, on the other it justifies the construction of strategic partnerships in the production of weapons systems, such as the Brazil-Sweden Strategic Partnership, under the FX-2 Program. Thus, this article seeks to evaluate the presence of Military Malthusianism in the Brazilian case, the compliance of the Brazil-Sweden Strategic Partnership with the National Defense Strategy (END, in Portuguese), and analyzes the role of this Partnership in the FX-2 Program. Keywords: Military Malthusianism, Strategic Partnership, FX-2 Program, National Defense Strategy. ISSN: 1809-3191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22491/1809-3191.v24n2.p276-300 | Publication Name: Revista da Escola de Guerra Naval.
In this study historical and economic data about the international use of military offset agreements are presented. Then, aspects of the offset policy in defense equipment acquisition in Brazil are analyzed. On such analysis, a systematic model of relations between stakeholders is presented, allowing the establishment of four offset strategies for an Armed Force contractor. It is also drawn a dynamic categorization and prioritization of technologies of interest. In addition, necessary processes for the operation of the offset activities are suggested, specifically in the period prior to the negotiation of offset agreements. Besides, the proposed processes are analyzed under the orientation of a Brazilian Court of Accounts report on the offset activities. The methodology used is a literature review, as well as a mapping of the Brazilian legislation and regulations. In the Conclusion, considerations about the relevance of offsets for the absorption of military and civilian technologies in Brazil are presented, taking into account the guidelines contained in the Brazilian National Defense Strategy. Keywords: Acquisition of defense products; Military offsets; Management processes in the Navy of Brazil; Industrial, technological or commercial offsets; Offsets in the acquisition of dual use technologies. ISSN: 1809-3191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21544/1809-3191/regn.v22n1p169-196 | Publication Name: Journal of the Naval War College.
This is the first mapping of the Defense Industrial Base of Brazil. This work was done by eight of the main scientists of Industrial Development through Defense in Brazil. During more than a year, these scientists mapped, created evaluations and suggested public policies in order to integrate and develop more than 700 companies. The methodology was data analysis and field research. Vitelio Brustolin wrote Chapter 8, on Individual Use Equipment (pages 597-692 and 731-736). Keywords: Brazil, National Security, Industrial development, Military Industrial Complex, Defense procurement. ISBN: 978-85-6132-341-7, Publisher: Government of Brazil (ABDI & IPEA).
This paper argues that technologies have multiple uses, with both civil and military employment. It also demonstrates, through official documents, that Brazil has suffered technological embargoes by foreign nations, making advantageous to produce military devices inside the country. Finally, this study demonstrates that the country has structure to produce locally science and technologies of Defense and that the State of Rio de Janeiro stands out in this context. The methodology used is an analysis of cutouts of the industrial-military history, in addition to legislation, documents and official data. The research is a part of Doctoral Thesis produced at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and at Harvard University (USA), with funding from Capes and Lemann Foundation. Keywords: Multiple-use technology. Generation of science and technology through National Defense. The military-industrial-academic complex in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). DOI: https://doi.org/10.12957/cdf.2015.19713 | Publication Name: Cadernos do Desenvolvimento Fluminense.
In this article the author formats a concept to define individual equipment, based on the guiding documents of the Armed Forces of Brazil. Then the author analyses the largest enterprises of individual equipment of the World, seeking some market opportunities for Brazilian firms. Next he makes a mapping of Brazilian companies that are working in that field, including its production structure, size, location and innovation capacity. The methodology used is: 1 - analysis of governmental data, 2 - websurvey with entrepreneurs, 3 - personal interview in selected companies, 4 - literature review. In the conclusions are presented possibilities of public policy to contemplate the Defense Industrial Base of Brazil, focusing on companies of individual equipment. Keywords: Brazilian Defense Industrial Base. Individual Equipment. Public Policy for National Defense. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21544/1809-3191.v21n1.p141-178 | Publication Name: Journal of the Naval War College.
This study analyzes the practices of acquisition of defense technologies in the United States (U.S.) and Brazil. The objective is to elucidate the processes adopted by both countries in order to produce conclusions to improve the generation of science and technology in Brazil (especially with dual use - civilian and military). Methodology: review of process flowcharts available and related literature. The research was conducted in both countries, with a first analysis produced at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and a second part developed at Harvard University, U.S. (with a full scholarship from Government of Brazil/CAPES and Lemann Foundation). In the conclusions are proposed suggestions for the Brazilian defense. Keywords: Acquisition of defense materials. Production of dual use technologies. Processes and practices of military innovation in the United States and Brazil. Publication Name: Brazilian Journal of Strategic Studies.
The aim of this paper is to elucidate the size of resources devoted to the Defense of Brazil. To achieve this purpose are conducted external comparisons – with budgets of other nations; and internal comparisons – taking into account other expenses of that country. The methodology used is budget analysis. In the conclusion is presented the Defense budget execution of Brazil, besides being produced a critical analysis about this execution. Keywords: Defense Budget of Brazil. Military Expenditures. Economics of Defense. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12957/rmi.2014.7574 | Publication Name: Mural Internacional.
Innovation and Development through National Defense in the USA and Brazil / Inovação e Desenvolvimento via Defesa Nacional nos EUA e no Brasil
This study analyzes the practices of acquisition of defense technologies in the United States (U.S.) and Brazil. The first objective is to elucidate the processes adopted by both countries in order to produce conclusions to improve the generation of science and technology in Brazil (especially with dual use – civilian and military). The second objective of this study is to propose a model of generation of science and technology through National Defense to Brazil, respecting the history of the country and its objectives, expressed in its National Defense Strategy and National Defense Policy. The cutting is from the advent of the Second World War (September 1st, 1939) to the present. The methodologies are: review of the academic literature, analysis of practices of generation of technologies based on Defense, budget data comparison and verification of acquisition processes in both countries. In the conclusions we propose a model to produce dual use innovations in Brazil, through cooperation between government and military with industries and universities. The research was conducted in both countries, with a first analysis produced at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and a second part developed at Harvard University, USA (with a full scholarship from Government of Brazil/CAPES and Lemann Foundation).
Keywords: Military-industrial-academic complex. Production of science and technology through National Defense. Defense Industrial Base. Models of military acquisition of dual use technologies. Processes and practices of military innovation in the United States and Brazil. Triple Helix: government, industries and universities.
This work describes the limitations of public transparency of the military expenditures in Brazil and presents the budget of the Ministry of the Defense, divulging information – gotten by research – that never before had been published. The used data enclose mandates of presidents Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Keywords: budget of Defense of Brazil, accountability of the Brazilian’s Forces, budgetary transparency, budget of the Ministry of the Defense, military expenses of Brazil. Master's Degree Dissertation in Public Policy, Strategy and Development.